OFEV is a disease-modifying agent proven to slow IPF progression by reducing lung function decline1-5
OFEV (nintedanib) demonstrated reproducible reductions in the annual rate of FVC decline across 3 clinical trials1*
*The annual rate of decline in FVC (mL/year) was analyzed using a random coefficient regression model.1
OFEV showed an early and sustained reduction in lung function decline through 52 weeks1,2,6
A clear separation was seen after 12 weeks and treatment arms diverged at all time points
INPULSIS®-1 and INPULSIS®-21,2†
†Mean change from baseline at 52 weeks was calculated from values at baseline and at 52 weeks.2
‡Adjusted mean difference at week 52 was based on mixed model for repeated measures between OFEV (-95 mL) vs placebo (-205 mL).2
§Mean change from baseline at day 365 was calculated from values at baseline and at day 365.6
OFEV reduced the proportion of patients in all categorical cut points of FVC decline in the INPULSIS® trials1,2
Fewer patients treated with OFEV had a ≥0% or ≥10% decline in % predicted FVC at 52 weeks based on the cumulative distribution of patients1,2¶
INPULSIS®-1 (vertical lines indicate ≥0% decline or ≥10% decline in % predicted FVC)
3 out of every 10 patients with IPF taking OFEV had stable or improved lung function (≤0% change in FVC)1
- 30% of patients with IPF taking OFEV had stable or improved lung function (≤0 change in FVC compared with 18% with placebo)1
- Similar results were observed in INPULSIS®-21
- Lung function improvement is defined as a ≤0% decline in predicted FVC at 52 weeks, meaning their predicted FVC increased from baseline1
Less than one-third of patients with IPF taking OFEV had a meaningful decline in lung function (≥10% change in FVC)1,5,9,11
- 29% of patients with IPF taking OFEV had a meaningful decline in lung function (≥10% change in FVC) compared with 43% with placebo1
- Similar results were observed in INPULSIS®-21
- A meaningful decline is defined as an absolute decline of ≥10 percentage points in predicted FVC at 52 weeks1,5,9,11
According to ATS guidelines, ≥10% FVC decline is an established measure of IPF progression and a surrogate marker of mortality.5,9,11
- In INPULSIS® trials, there was not a statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality for OFEV compared with placebo1
ALAT, Latin American Thoracic Association; ATS, American Thoracic Society; CI, confidence interval; ERS, European Respiratory Society; FVC, forced vital capacity; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; JRS, Japanese Respiratory Society; SSc-ILD, systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease.
||This is a conditional recommendation. This means that different choices will be appropriate for each patient based on individual preferences.12
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONSHepatic Impairment: OFEV is not recommended in patients with moderate (Child Pugh B) or severe (Child Pugh C) hepatic impairment. Patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child Pugh A) can be treated with a reduced dosage (100 mg twice daily). Consider treatment interruption or discontinuation for management of adverse reactions.
OFEV is indicated for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
OFEV is indicated to slow the rate of decline in pulmonary function in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD).
Elevated Liver Enzymes and Drug-Induced Liver Injury
- Cases of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have been observed with OFEV treatment. In the clinical trials and post-marketing period, non-serious and serious cases of DILI were reported. Cases of severe liver injury with fatal outcome have been reported in the post-marketing period. The majority of hepatic events occur within the first three months of treatment. OFEV was associated with elevations of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALKP, and GGT) and bilirubin. Liver enzyme and bilirubin increases were reversible with dose modification or interruption in the majority of cases.
- In IPF studies, the majority (94%) of patients with ALT and/or AST elevations had elevations less than 5 times ULN and the majority (95%) of patients with bilirubin elevations had elevations less than 2 times ULN.
- In the SSc-ILD study, a maximum ALT and/or AST greater than or equal to 3 times ULN was observed in 4.9% of patients treated with OFEV.
- Patients with low body weight (less than 65 kg), patients who are Asian, and female patients may have a higher risk of elevations in liver enzymes. Nintedanib exposure increased with patient age, which may result in increased liver enzymes.
- Conduct liver function tests prior to initiation of treatment, at regular intervals during the first three months of treatment, and periodically thereafter or as clinically indicated. Measure liver function tests promptly in patients who report symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine, or jaundice. Dosage modifications, interruption, or discontinuation may be necessary for liver enzyme elevations.
- In IPF studies, diarrhea was the most frequent gastrointestinal event reported in 62% versus 18% of patients treated with OFEV and placebo, respectively. Events were primarily mild to moderate in intensity and occurred within the first 3 months. Diarrhea led to permanent dose reduction in 11% and discontinuation in 5% of OFEV patients versus 0 and less than 1% in placebo patients, respectively.
- In the SSc-ILD study, diarrhea was the most frequent gastrointestinal event reported in 76% versus 32% of patients treated with OFEV and placebo, respectively. Events were primarily mild to moderate in intensity and occurred within the first 3 months. Diarrhea led to permanent dose reduction in 22% and discontinuation in 7% of OFEV patients versus 1% and 0.3% in placebo patients, respectively.
- Dosage modifications or treatment interruptions may be necessary in patients with diarrhea. Treat diarrhea at first signs with adequate hydration and antidiarrheal medication (e.g., loperamide), and consider treatment interruption if diarrhea continues. OFEV treatment may be resumed at the full dosage (150 mg twice daily), or at the reduced dosage (100 mg twice daily), which subsequently may be increased to the full dosage. If severe diarrhea persists, discontinue treatment.
Nausea and Vomiting
- In IPF studies, nausea was reported in 24% versus 7% and vomiting was reported in 12% versus 3% of patients treated with OFEV and placebo, respectively. Events were primarily of mild to moderate intensity. Nausea and vomiting led to discontinuation of OFEV in 2% and 1% of patients, respectively.
- In the SSc-ILD study, nausea was reported in 32% versus 14% and vomiting was reported in 25% versus 10% of patients treated with OFEV and placebo, respectively. Events were primarily of mild to moderate intensity. Nausea and vomiting led to discontinuation of OFEV in 2% and 1% of patients, respectively.
- If nausea or vomiting persists despite appropriate supportive care including anti-emetic therapy, consider dose reduction or treatment interruption. OFEV treatment may be resumed at full dosage or at reduced dosage, which subsequently may be increased to full dosage. If severe nausea or vomiting does not resolve, discontinue treatment.
Embryofetal Toxicity:OFEV can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman and patients should be advised of the potential risk to a fetus. Women should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving OFEV and to use highly effective contraception during treatment and at least 3 months after the last dose of OFEV. As the impact of nintedanib on the effectiveness of hormonal contraception is unknown, advise women using hormonal contraceptives to add a barrier method. Verify pregnancy status prior to starting OFEV and during treatment as appropriate.
Arterial Thromboembolic Events
- In IPF studies, arterial thromboembolic events were reported in 2.5% of OFEV and 0.8% of placebo patients, respectively. Myocardial infarction was the most common arterial thromboembolic event, occurring in 1.5% of OFEV and 0.4% of placebo patients.
- In the SSc-ILD study, arterial thromboembolic events were reported in 0.7% of patients in both the OFEV-treated and placebo-treated patients. There were 0 cases of myocardial infarction in OFEV-treated patients compared to 0.7% of placebo-treated patients.
- Use caution when treating patients at higher cardiovascular risk, including known coronary artery disease. Consider treatment interruption in patients who develop signs or symptoms of acute myocardial ischemia.
Risk of Bleeding
- OFEV may increase the risk of bleeding.
- In IPF studies, bleeding events were reported in 10% of OFEV versus 7% of placebo patients. In the post-marketing period, non-serious and serious bleeding events, some of which were fatal, have been observed.
- In the SSc-ILD study, bleeding events were reported in 11% of OFEV versus 8% of placebo patients.
- Use OFEV in patients with known risk of bleeding only if the anticipated benefit outweighs the potential risk.
- OFEV may increase the risk of gastrointestinal perforation.
- In IPF studies, gastrointestinal perforation was reported in 0.3% of OFEV versus in 0% placebo patients.
- In the SSc-ILD study, no cases of gastrointestinal perforation were reported in either OFEV or placebo-treated patients.
- In the post-marketing period, cases of gastrointestinal perforations have been reported, some of which were fatal. Use caution when treating patients who have had recent abdominal surgery, have a previous history of diverticular disease, or who are receiving concomitant corticosteroids or NSAIDs. Discontinue therapy with OFEV in patients who develop gastrointestinal perforation. Only use OFEV in patients with known risk of gastrointestinal perforation if the anticipated benefit outweighs the potential risk.
- Adverse reactions reported in greater than or equal to 5% of OFEV patients, and more than placebo, included diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, skin ulcer, abdominal pain, liver enzyme elevation, weight decreased, fatigue, decreased appetite, headache, pyrexia, back pain, dizziness and hypertension.
- In IPF studies, the most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in patients treated with OFEV, more than placebo, were bronchitis (1.2% vs. 0.8%) and myocardial infarction (1.5% vs. 0.4%). The most common adverse events leading to death in OFEV patients versus placebo were pneumonia (0.7% vs. 0.6%), lung neoplasm malignant (0.3% vs. 0%), and myocardial infarction (0.3% vs. 0.2%). In the predefined category of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including MI, fatal events were reported in 0.6% of OFEV versus 1.8% in placebo patients.
- In the SSc-ILD study, the most frequent serious adverse events reported in patients treated with OFEV, more than placebo, were interstitial lung disease (2.4% vs. 1.7%) and pneumonia (2.8% vs. 0.3%). Within 52 weeks, 5 patients treated with OFEV (1.7%) and 4 patients treated with placebo (1.4%) died. There was no pattern among adverse events leading to death in either treatment arm.
- P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 Inhibitors and Inducers: Coadministration with oral doses of a P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole, increased exposure to nintedanib by 60%. Concomitant use of potent P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin) with OFEV may increase exposure to nintedanib. In such cases, patients should be monitored closely for tolerability of OFEV. Management of adverse reactions may require interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy with OFEV. Coadministration with oral doses of a P-gp and CYP3A4 inducer, rifampicin, decreased exposure to nintedanib by 50%. Concomitant use of P-gp and CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, and St. John’s wort) with OFEV should be avoided as these drugs may decrease exposure to nintedanib.
- Anticoagulants: Nintedanib may increase the risk of bleeding. Monitor patients on full anticoagulation therapy closely for bleeding and adjust anticoagulation treatment as necessary.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
- Nursing Mothers: Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from OFEV, advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment.
- Reproductive Potential: OFEV may reduce fertility in females of reproductive potential.
- Smokers: Smoking was associated with decreased exposure to OFEV, which may affect the efficacy of OFEV. Encourage patients to stop smoking prior to and during treatment.
- OFEV® (nintedanib) Prescribing Information. Ridgefield, CT: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc; 2019.
- Richeldi L et al; for the INPULSIS Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(22):2071-2082.
- Hilberg F et al. Cancer Res. 2008;68(12):4774-4782.
- Wollin L et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;349(2):209-220.
- Raghu G et al; on behalf of the ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Committee on Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(6):788-824.
- Richeldi L et al. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(12):1079-1087.
- Zappala CJ et al. Eur Respir J. 2010;35(4):830-836.
- Schmidt SL et al. Chest. 2014;145(3):579-585.
- du Bois RM et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(12):1382-1389.
- Data on file. Ridgefield, CT: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
- Richeldi L et al. Thorax. 2012;67(5):407-411.
- Raghu G et al; on behalf of the ATS, ERS, JRS, and ALAT. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192(2):e3-e19.